BMW 3 series E46

Since 1998 of release

Repair and car operation

The BMW of 3 series Е46
+ Cars BMW 3 (Е46)
+ Current leaving and service
+ The engine
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ Power supply systems, injection and release
- Engine electric equipment
   The general information and security measures
   - System of electronic control by ignition and injection of the petrol engine
      The basic data on system of electronic control by the engine
   + Ignition system
   + System of preheat of the diesel engine
   + Charge and start systems
+ Manual transmission and transmission a line
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment
+ Electric equipment schemes


System of electronic control by ignition and injection of the petrol engine

The basic data on system of electronic control by the engine

System of an electronic digital control the petrol engine (DME)

1 — an adsorber
2 — запорный the valve
3 — the valve of ventilation of a fuel tank
4 — a regulator of pressure of fuel
5 — an injector
6 — задатчик pressure
7 — the ignition coil
8 — the position gauge
9 — the pump of secondary air
10 — запорный the valve
11 — a measuring instrument of weight of air
12 — a monitor
13 — the gauge throttle заслонки

14 — задатчик idling
15 — the gauge of temperature of air
16 — the valve рециркуляции the fulfilled gases
17 — the fuel filter
18 — the detonation gauge
19 — the gauge of number of turns
20 — the gauge of temperature of the engine
21 — the oxygen gauge
22 — a diagnostic socket
23 — a diagnostic control lamp
24 — the differential gauge of pressure
25 — the fuel pump

The electronic control system of the engine allows:

- To reduce the maintenance of harmful substances in the fulfilled gases thanks to the exact task of the moment of ignition in any working conditions of the engine.
- To increase capacity of a spark of ignition on the petrol engine and therefore reliability of start and stability of its work.
- Self-diagnostics of a control system by the engine, provides possibility of fast troubleshooting. The control system of the engine has memory of malfunctions. If defect it is brought in memory of the device while in service comes to light. By means of special devices it is possible to deduce the list of the malfunctions, allowing to eliminate defect independently. Address also to Section Diagnostics of malfunctions. Work it is desirable to spend HUNDRED in conditions.

The engine management block represents the minicomputer with high speed. It, besides other, defines the optimum moment of ignition on the petrol engine, and on a diesel engine by means of the relay includes candles накаливания. Thus there is a coordination of work of the block of management with other systems of the car, for example, to a control system of a check point or blocking from stealing.

Elements of a control system of the engine keeps the high working capacity for a long time and practically does not demand service. Replacements, at maintenance service carrying out, demand only a spark plug. Serious works on adjustment and repair demand application of difficult diagnostic devices. Address to Section Diagnostics of malfunctions. Works it is desirable to spend HUNDRED in conditions.
Updating of the moment of ignition on petrol engines, within the limits of maintenance service carrying out, is not required.

Owing to good starting characteristics of the diesel engine with direct injection preliminary heat is required basically at temperatures more low 0С.

The information arriving from various gauges, and the commands arriving to executive powers, provide optimum work of the engine in any mode. If gauges fail, the monitor is switched in emergency operation to exclude damages of the engine and to provide possibility of the further movement of the car. Failure of gauges not necessarily should be felt on deterioration of work of the engine.
However not later than the nearest review period of the fulfilled gases (AU) the data about it will be brought in memory of malfunctions of a control system by the engine.

- The system of ignition has no the mobile parts, the traditional distributor of ignition is absent. Each spark plug has the coil.
- The monitoring system of pressure of ignition at too low voltage disconnects block DME (for example, owing to cable damage). Thus the engine cannot be started. It excludes damages catalytic the converter.
- The system of antidetonation regulation serves for definition and regulation of optimum time of ignition for each cylinder. If there is a malfunction in ignition system, fuel giving to corresponding cylinder stops.
- The relay of the fuel pump is in the relay block over a ware box. The relay submits a current to the fuel pump.

The general description of system of self-diagnostics OBD

1 system OBD structure includes some the diagnostic devices making monitoring of separate parametres of systems of decrease of toxicity and fixing revealed refusals in memory of the onboard processor in the form of individual codes of malfunctions. The system makes also check of gauges and actuation mechanisms, supervises vehicle service cycles, provides storing possibility even failures quickly arising in the course of work and clearing of the block of memory.
2 All petrol models described in the present Management are equipped by system of onboard diagnostics of the second generation (OBD-II). A system Basic element is the onboard processor, more often named the electronic module of management (ЕСМ), or the module of management of functioning of the power unit (РСМ). РСМ is a brain of a control system of the engine. The initial data arrives on the module from various information gauges and other electronic components (switches, the relay etc.) . On the basis of the analysis of the data arriving from information gauges and according to put in memory of the processor in base parametres, РСМ develops commands on operation of various operating relays and actuation mechanisms, carrying out thereby updating of working parametres of the engine and providing peak efficiency of its return at the minimum expense of fuel. Data read-out of memory of processor OBD-II is made by means of the special scanner connected to a 16-contact diagnostic socket of reading of a database (DLC), located under the panel of devices from the driver's party of the car, or to a 20-contact socket located at the left in an impellent compartment. Address to section Diagnostics of malfunctions.

Basically, reading written down in memory of system of self-diagnostics of codes of malfunctions can be made by means of a lamp “Check up the engine”.

3 On service of components of control systems by the engine/decrease of toxicity of the fulfilled gases special guarantee certificates with the prolonged period of validity extend. It is not necessary to undertake attempts of independent performance of problem diagnostics РСМ or replacement of components of system, to an exit of terms of the given obligations, - address to experts of firm car repair shops.

Information gauges

4 Oxygen gauges (l-probes) - the Gauge are developed by a signal which amplitude depends on a difference of the maintenance of oxygen (О2) in the fulfilled gases of the engine and external air before and after catalytic the converter.

5 Gauge of position of a cranked shaft (СКР) - the Gauge informs РСМ on position of a cranked shaft and engine turns. The given information is used by the processor at definition of the moments of injection of fuel and installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition.

6 Gauge of position of pistons (CYP) - On the basis of the analysis of signals РСМ arriving from the gauge calculates position of the piston of the first cylinder and uses the given information at definition of the moments and sequence of injection of fuel in chambers of combustion of the engine.
7 Gauge VMT (TDC) - signals Developed by the gauge are used РСМ at definition of installations of a corner of an advancing of ignition at the moment of engine start.

8 Gauge of temperature of a cooling liquid of the engine (EATS) - On the basis of information ESM/RSM arriving from the gauge carries out necessary updatings of structure of an air-fuel mix and a corner of an advancing of ignition, and also supervises system EGR work.

9 Gauge of temperature of soaked up air (IAT) - РСМ uses the information arriving from gauge IAT at updatings of a stream of fuel, installations of a corner of an advancing of ignition and management of system EGR functioning.

10 Gauge of position throttle заслонки (TPS) - the Gauge is located on the case of a throttle and connected to an axis throttle заслонки. On amplitude given out TPS signal РСМ defines a corner of opening throttle заслонки (copes the driver from a gas pedal) and in appropriate way corrects fuel giving in inlet ports of chambers of combustion. Gauge refusal, or easing of its fastening leads to faults of injection and infringements of stability of turns of idling.

11 Gauge of absolute pressure in the pipeline (МАР) - the Gauge supervises variations of depth of depression in the inlet pipeline, connected with changes of turns of a cranked shaft and loading on the engine and will transform the received information to a peak signal. РСМ uses delivered by gauges MAR and IAT the information at thin updatings of giving of fuel.
12 Barometric gauge of pressure - the Gauge develops the peak signal proportional to changes of atmospheric pressure which is used РСМ at definition of duration of the moments of injection of fuel. The gauge is built in module RSM and to service in an individual order is not subject.

13 Gauge of a detonation - the Gauge reacts to change of level of the vibrations connected with detonations in the engine. On the basis of information РСМ arriving from the gauge carries out corresponding updating of a corner of an advancing of ignition.

14 Gauge of speed of movement of the car (VSS) - As appears from its name, the gauge informs the processor on current speed of movement of the car.

15 Gauge of size of opening of valve EGR - the Gauge notifies РСМ on displacement size плунжера valve EGR. The received information is used then the processor at management of system functioning рециркуляции the fulfilled gases.
16 Gauge of pressure in a fuel tank - the Gauge is a component of system of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP) and serves for tracing of pressure of steams of gasoline in a tank. On the basis of information РСМ arriving from the gauge gives out commands on operation of electromagnetic valves of a purge of system.
17 Gauge-switch of pressure of system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel (PSP) - On the basis of information РСМ arriving from gauge-switch PSP provides increase of turns of idling at the expense of operation of gauge IAC for the purpose of indemnification of increasing loadings on the engine, connected with functioning of the steering hydraulic booster at fulfilment of maneuvers.
18 Transmissionnye gauges - In addition to the data arriving from VSS, РСМ receive also the information from gauges placed in a transmission, or connected to it. Number of such gauges concern: () the gauge of turns of a secondary (radical) shaft and (b) the gauge of turns of an intermediate shaft.
19 Gauge-switch of management of inclusion муфты couplings of the conditioner of air - At giving of a food from the battery to the electromagnetic valve of compressor K/V a corresponding information signal arrives on РСМ which regards it as the certificate of increase of loading on the engine and in appropriate way corrects turns of its idling.
Actuation mechanisms
20 Main relay PGM-FI (the relay of the fuel pump) - РСМ makes activation of the relay of the fuel pump at поворачивании the ignition key in position START or RUN. At inclusion of ignition relay activation provides pressure lifting in the power supply system. More detailed information on the main relay is resulted in the Head of the Power supply system, injection and release.
21 Injectors of fuel - РСМ are provided with individual inclusion of each of injectors according to the established order of ignition. Besides, the module supervises duration of opening of the injectors, defined in the width of an operating impulse measured in milliseconds and defining quantity of fuel injected into the cylinder. More detailed information by a principle of functioning of system of injection, replacement and service of injectors is resulted in the Head of the Power supply system, injection and release.
22 Module of management of ignition (ICM) - the Module operates functioning of the coil of ignition, defining a demanded base advancing on the basis of developed РСМ commands. On all models of cars considered in the present Management it is used built in the distributor of ignition ICM, is more detailed in the present Chapter.

23 Valve of stabilisation of turns of idling (IAC) - Valve IAC carries out a dosage of quantity of air which is restarted up bypassing throttle заслонки when last is closed, or occupies idling position. Opening of the valve and formation результирующего an air stream operates РСМ.

24 Electromagnetic valve of a purge of a coal adsorber - the Valve is a component of system of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP) and, working at the command of РСМ, carries out release of steams which have accumulated in an adsorber of fuel in the inlet pipeline for the purpose of their burning in the course of normal functioning of the engine.
25 Electromagnet of management of a purge of a coal adsorber - the Electromagnet is used РСМ at check by system OBD-II of serviceability of functioning of system EVAP.

Reading of codes of malfunctions

26 At revealing of the malfunction repeating successively on two trips, РСМ gives out a command on inclusion of the control lamp built in in an instrument guard “Check up the engine”, named also the indicator of refusals. The lamp will continue to burn until memory of system of self-diagnostics will not be cleared of the codes of the revealed malfunctions brought in it (address to Specifications). Reading of codes of malfunctions in system OBD-II can be made in the various ways. The basic way is reading by means of described in Section Diagnostics of malfunctions of the devices connected to 16-contact socket DLC of system OBD-II. Other ways are possible not on all models. The blinking code (defined by the manufacturer and distinct from codes "" standard SAE) can be считан on a lamp “Check up the engine”.


27 without starting the engine, include ignition, - a control lamp “Check up the engine” should light up, otherwise it is necessary to replace it. Having checked up serviceability of a condition of a lamp, again switch off ignition.

Method of reading of blinking codes by a lamp “Check up the engine” (it is possible on some models)

28 After inclusion of ignition five times within five seconds completely squeeze out and release an accelerator pedal. If in memory of the processor codes of taking place malfunctions are brought, they will start to be highlighted consistently by a control lamp “Check up the engine” on a car control panel. Consider a blinking code.

The lamp expects 5 сек, one flash follows, then the code with intervals 2.5 сек between categories stands out. After delivery of a code a lamp it is necessary to burn. Repeat procedure to consider the subsequent codes. If the first given out code 1444, 2444 or 4444 - malfunctions are not fixed.
Codes 1000 or 2000, given out by one or two flashes and a long pause, and then constant burning of a lamp, specify in the termination of delivery of a code.

Blinking codes, differ from codes "", resulted in Specifications.

Engine start automatically interrupts access to diagnostics system.

Clearing of memory OBD-II

29 At entering of a code of malfunction in memory РСМ on an instrument guard of the car the control lamp “lights up Check up the engine”. The code remains written down in memory of the module.
30 For clearing of memory ЕСМ connect to system the scanner and choose in its menu function CLEARING COEDS (Removal of codes). Further follow the instructions highlighted on the device, or at once for 30 seconds take from the nest in the assembly block safety lock EFI. Alternatively clearing of memory of system can be made by removal of a fusible insert (the main safety lock of system of onboard power supplies), the battery established near to the positive plug (the Onboard electric equipment see the Head) (it is possible to disconnect simply also from the battery a positive wire).

It is necessary to mean that at clearing of memory OBD by a detachment of a negative wire from the battery, adjusting parametres of the engine are erased and stability of its turns for short time after primary start is broken.

If the stereosystem established on the car is equipped by a security code before to disconnect the battery, make sure that have a correct combination for audiosystem input in action!

Battery switching-off also leads to removal of options of the receiver on favourite radio stations.

In order to avoid damage ЕСМ its switching-off and connection should be made only at the switched off ignition!

31 Track, that memory of system has been cleared before installation on the engine of new components of systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases. If before start of system after replacement of the failed information gauge not to make clearing of memory of refusals, РСМ will bring in it a new code of malfunction. Memory clearing allows the processor to make change-over on new parametres. Thus in the first 50 - 20 minutes after primary start of the engine can take place some infringement of stability of its turns.